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Ancient History of Artificial Intelligence


Even though the historical views of artificial intelligence often start in the 1950s when it was first applied in computer science, the first considerations about AI range back to 350 BCE. AI we use has the ability to learn, understand, and make decisions like a human.

Aristotle, Greek Philosopher (384–322 BCE)

The first person to formalize human thought in a way that could be imitated was Aristotle. He exhaustively listed all potential categorical syllogisms in order to codify logical conclusions. Syllogisms utilize deductive reasoning to draw practical conclusions from two or more supplied propositions (Greek: syllogismós, "conclusion," "inference"). Today's logical programming languages are based on a modern interpretation of Aristotle's method of formalizing thought through the use of logical derivations. Modern AI systems can be programmed to arrive at legitimate logical conclusions based on a predetermined set of predefined principles.

Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Polymath (1452–1519)

Even though he never really implemented it, Leonardo da Vinci created a potential computing device on paper. A black box can accept inputs and produce outputs based on a recorded program in memory or mechanics, as seen by the machine's 13 registers. These early computer hardware considerations are crucial since advancements in computing are a requirement for any kind of development in AI.

René Descartes, French Philosopher (1596–1650)

Descartes, a French philosopher, thought that physics and mathematical principles might be used to describe rationality and reason. As AI's goals are outlined mathematically, the capacity to create objectives using equations is a crucial basis. Rationalism and materialism, in Descartes' view, are two sides of the same coin. This has a connection to artificial intelligence (AI) techniques where rational choices are determined mathematically.

Thomas Hobbes, British Philosopher (1588–1679)

Thomas Hobbes outlined Descartes' notions of reason and rationality. He saw parallels between machine computations and human reasoning in his work. Hobbes claimed that humans use calculus-like procedures in their rational decision-making, which may be formalized in a manner similar to mathematics.

David Hume, Scottish Philosopher (1711–1776)

Hume made important contributions to the discussion of causal reasoning as well as logical induction. He coupled learning principles with repeated exposure, for instance, which has had a significant impact on the learning curve among other things. These days, a lot of machine learning algorithms work under the premise that patterns or relationships in data can be discovered through repeated exposure.


It is quite visible that AI is a combination of philosophy and mathematics. The philosophy of human intelligence and mathematical concepts such as linear algebra, calculus, and probability are the fundamentals for the AI we see and use today. AI is used to create autonomous agents that can replicate the behavior of humans. Such agents are capable of learning, understanding, and making decisions based on their environment. AI also uses machine learning to improve its ability to predict and act in a variety of situations. AI has been used to develop robotic systems that can perform tasks autonomously and to create algorithms that can recognize patterns and recommend solutions for complex problems. AI is also being used for medical diagnosis, finance, and transportation. Overall, AI has become an important tool for decision-making, problem-solving, and automation in many industries.

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